Kidney stones (also called renal calculi or nephrolithiasis) are hard accumulation or crystals made of minerals and salts that form inside your kidneys.
Diet, excess body weight, some medical conditions, , certain supplements and medications and many other conditions causes of kidney stones. Kidney stones can work on any part of your urinary tract from your kidneys to your bladder. And then, stones form when the urine becomes vigorous crystallization of minerals occur sand stick jointly.
Passing kidney stones can be torturing, but the stones usually cause no ever lasting damage if they are recognized early. Depending on your situation, you may need nothing more than to take pain medication and drink plenty of water to proceed a kidney stone. In other occasion, for example, if stones become implant in the urinary tract, are attach with a urinary infection or cause obstacles, surgery may be needed.
Your doctor may approve obstructive treatment to decrease your risk of periodic kidney stones if you are at increased risk of growing them again.
A kidney stone generally will not cause symptoms till it moves throughout within your kidney or passes into your ureters, the tubes attach the kidneys and the bladder. If it becomes embedded n the ureters, it may drawback the run of urine and cause the kidney to rise and the ureter to jerk, which can be very painful. There are following signs and symptoms:
- Critical, sharp pain in the side and back, beneath the ribs
- Pain that spread out to the lower abdomen and groin
- Pain that comes in waves and alter in intensity
- Pain or burning sensation while urinating.
Image Source: https://www.apollospectra.com
Other signs and symptoms may include
- Pink, red or brown urine
- Cloudy or bad-smelling urine
- A determination need to urinate, urinating more frequently than usual or urinating in small amounts
- Nausea and vomiting
- Fever and chills if an infection is present
- Pain caused by a kidney stone may change for occasion, shifting to a different location or increasing in intensity as the stone moves through your urinary tract.
When to see a doctor
Make an appointment with your doctor if you have any signs and symptoms that worry you.
Seek immediate medical attention if you experience:
Pain so critical that you can’t sit still or find a pleasant position
Pain coincided with nausea and vomiting
Pain coincided with fever and chills
Blood in your urine
Trouble in passing urine
Kidney stones often have no definite, single cause, although several factors may increase your risk.
Kidney stones form when your urine contains more crystal-forming substances, such as calcium, oxalate and uric acid, than the fluid in your urine can dilute. At the same time, your urine may lack substances that prevent crystals from sticking together, lead to the formation of kidney stones.
Image Source: https://www.devasyahospital.com
Types of kidney stones include:
- Calcium stones.
Most kidney stones are calcium stones, usually in the form of calcium oxalate. Oxalate is a substance made daily by your liver or absorbed from your diet. Certain fruits and vegetables, as well as nuts and chocolate, have high oxalate content.
Dietary factors, high doses of vitamin D, intestinal bypass surgery and several metabolic disorders can increase the concentration of calcium or oxalate in urine.
Calcium stones may also occur in the form of calcium phosphate. This type of stone is more common in metabolic conditions, such as renal tubular acidosis. It may also be associated with certain medications used to treat migraines or seizures.
- Struvite stones.
Struvite stones form in response to a urinary tract infection. These stones can grow quickly and become quite large, sometimes with few symptoms or little warning.
Uric acid stones. Uric acid stones can form in people who lose too much fluid because of chronic diarrhoea or malabsorption, those who eat a high-protein diet, and those with diabetes or metabolic syndrome. Certain genetic factors also may increase your risk of uric acid stones.
- Cystine stones.
These stones form in people with a hereditary disorder called cystinuria that causes the kidneys to excrete too much of a specific amino acid.
Factors that increase your risk of developing kidney stones include:
1. Family or personal history. If someone in your family has had kidney stones, you’re more likely to develop stones, too. If you’ve already had one or more kidney stones, you’re at increased risk of developing another.
2.Dehydration. Not drinking enough water each day can increase your risk of kidney stones. People who live in warm, dry climates and those who sweat a lot may be at higher risk than others.
3.Certain diets. Eating a diet that’s high in protein, sodium (salt) and sugar may increase your risk of some types of kidney stones. This is especially true with a high-sodium diet. Too much salt in your diet increases the amount of calcium your kidneys must filter and significantly increases your risk of kidney stones.
- Obesity. High body mass index (BMI), large waist size and weight gain have been linked to an increased risk of kidney stones.
- Digestive diseases and surgery. Gastric bypass surgery, inflammatory bowel disease or chronic diarrhoea can cause changes in the digestive process that affect your absorption of calcium and water, increasing the amounts of stone-forming substances in your urine.
Other medical conditions such as renal tubular acidosis, cystinuria, hyperparathyroidism and repeated urinary tract infections also can increase your risk of kidney stones.
Certain supplements and medications, such as vitamin C, dietary supplements, laxatives (when used excessively), calcium-based antacids, and certain medications used to treat migraines or depression, can increase your risk of kidney stones.
Kidney Stone Treatment: What Should I Expect?
Kidney stones usually pass on their own without causing any long-term problems.
Your treatment depends on where and how big your stone is and what symptoms you have.
If you are in discomfort, you can manage your symptoms while you wait for the stone to exit.
Over-the-counter pain relievers such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen can help. You might also need a drug to ease nausea.
Prescription drugs can help:
Calcium channel blockers and alpha-blockers: These relax your ureter, the tube through which pee passes from your kidney to your bladder. A wider ureter will help the stone move more quickly.
Potassium citrate or sodium citrate: Can help keep kidney stones created by uric acid from forming.
Sometimes, a stone is too big come out by itself. Your doctor may have to break it up or remove it. She also may do that if you are:
- In a lot of pain
- Have an infection
- Unable to pee because the stone is blocking the flow or stone is blocking urine from one kidney (in which case you might still be able to pee)
Your doctor can choose from several procedures.
Shock wave lithotripsy (SWL). This is the most common treatment in the U.S. It works best for small or medium stones. Your doctor aims high-energy sound waves to break up the kidney stone into little pieces. The shock waves come from outside the body, which is why the procedure sometimes is called extracorporeal SWL.
You will get pain-numbing medicine beforehand, and you usually can go home on the same day.
Ureteroscopy. Your doctor inserts a thin, flexible scope through your urethra, bladder and then into your ureter to reach the stone. If the stone is small, she can use a basket to remove it. If the stone is larger, a laser passed through the scope can break it up.
Percutaneous nephrolithotomy or percutaneous nephrolithotripsy. These similar surgical procedures are options if your stone is large or if other procedures fail to break them down enough. Your doctor uses a thin tube inserted through your skin to reach the stone and them removes (nephrolithotomy) or breaks (nephrolithotripsy) it.
You will be given drugs so you won’t awake or feel pain. You’ll likely have to stay in the hospital for 1-2 days.
Open surgery: This might be an option if your stone is very oversized or your doctor can’t take it out with other treatments. You’ll be sedated and not awake. Your surgeon cuts through your side to reach the kidney, then takes the stone out through the opening.
You may need to stay in the hospital for a few days. It can take 4-6 weeks for you to fully recover.
Your surgeon usually will ask a lab to identify the type of stone, so you might be able to take meds to avoid them in the future.
Ask your doctor:
- How long should I wait for my stone to pass on its own?
- How much water should I drink?
- What foods should I eat?
- For which symptoms should I call you?
- What can I do to prevent another stone from forming after treatment?